Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
What is PCOD/PCDS
woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone — hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle.
It is a condition that occurs due to a woman’s hormone imbalance levels. Women with this disease produce higher-than-normal amounts of male hormones. This hormone imbalance causes their body to skip menstrual periods and makes it harder for them to get pregnant. Extra male hormones disrupt the menstrual cycle, so women with PCOS get fewer periods than usual.
Both Estrogen & Progesterone hormones regulate the menstrual cycle, Which are produced by woman’s ovaries (ovaries also produce a small amount of male hormones called Androgens). Besides these hormone, two other hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced in the pituitary gland, control ovulation in woman.
FSH stimulates the ovary to produce a follicle — a sac that contains an egg
After maturation of egg in ovary, LH triggers the ovary to release a mature egg into fallopian tube for fertilization with sperm of male.
Pathophysiology of PCOD
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:
- cysts in the ovaries
- high levels of male hormones
- irregular or skipped periods
In PCOS, many small, fluid-filled sacs grow inside the ovaries. The word “polycystic” means “many cysts.”
PCOS can disrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to fewer periods. Acne, hair growth, weight gain, and dark skin patches are other symptoms of the condition.
Causes Infertility, Metabolic syndrome- Weight gain/Obesity, Sleep apnea, Endometrial cancer etc
Treatment for PCOS usually starts with lifestyle changes like weight loss, diet, and exercise.
Many woman with PCOS have insulin resistance. Two of the primary ways that diet affects PCOS are weight management and insulin production and resistance.
Following a diet that meets a person’s nutritional needs, maintains a healthy weight, and promotes good insulin levels can help people with PCOS feel better.
Management of PCOS by Diet
Three diets that may help people with PCOS manage their symptoms are:
Food to eat in PCOD
Food to eat in PCOD
A low glycemic index (GI) diet
Foods in a low GI diet include whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, fruits, starchy vegetables, and other unprocessed, low-carbohydrate foods.
An anti-inflammatory diet
Anti-inflammatory foods, such as berries, fatty fish, leafy greens, and extra virgin olive oil, may reduce inflammation-related symptoms, such as fatigue.
The DASH diet
A DASH diet is rich in fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables whole grain, and low-fat dairy produce. The diet discourages foods that are high in saturated fat and sugar.
Refined carbohydrates, such as mass-produced pastries and white bread.
Fried foods, such as fast food.
Sugary beverages, such as sodas and energy drinks.
Processed meats, such as hot dogs, sausages, and luncheon meats.
Solid fats, including margarine, shortening, and lard.
Excess red meat, such as steaks, hamburgers, and pork.
Management of PCOS by lifestyle changes/Exercise
Winding veils round their heads, the women walked on deck. They were now moving steadily down the river, passing the dark shapes of ships at anchor, and London was a swarm of lights with a pale yellow canopy drooping above it. There were the lights of the great theatres, the lights of the long streets, lights that indicated huge squares of domestic comfort, lights that hung high in air.
No darkness would ever settle upon those lamps, as no darkness had settled upon them for hundreds of years. It seemed dreadful that the town should blaze for ever in the same spot; dreadful at least to people going away to adventure upon the sea, and beholding it as a circumscribed mound, eternally burnt, eternally scarred. From the deck of the ship the great city appeared a crouched and cowardly figure, a sedentary miser.